When Was Revelation Written?


Revelation does not explicitly state when it was written, so its date is a mystery to be solved. And like any good mystery, there is evidence, both internal and external, to consider.
 
Internal evidence consists of clues within the book itself. For example, John mentions Jesus Christ in 1:1. So, John wrote Revelation after Jesus’ ministry, that is, after A.D. 30. External evidence consists of clues left by other writers about the book. For example, in approximately A.D. 130, Justin Martyr refers to Revelation. So, Revelation was written before then.
 
Can we date John’s Apocalypse with more precision? Yes and no. Yes: Commentators agree that a closer examination of all the evidence yields a more precise date. But, no: They disagree about the precise date that examination yields. According to Robert H. Mounce, “The majority of scholars place the composition of the Apocalypse either during the reign of Domitian (A.D. 81-96) or toward the end or immediately after the reign of Nero (A.D. 54-68).”[i]
 
External evidence favors the Domitian date. In the late second century, Irenaeus wrote, “For it [Revelation] was seen not long ago, but almost in our generation, near the end of Domitian’s reign.”[ii] Other proponents of the Domitian date include Clement of Alexandria and Origen in the third century, and Victorinus, Eusebius, and Jerome in the fourth. The Nero date lacks similarly compelling external evidence.
 
Truth is not determined by majority opinion, however, but by sound arguments. Advocates of the Nero date make the following case[iii]: (1) The angelic instructions to measure the Temple in 11:1-2 assume that it is still standing, which was not true after A.D. 70. (2) The number 666 in 13:18 is a cryptic reference to Nero, since the numerical value of NRWN QSR (“Nero Caesar” in Hebrew letters) is exactly 666. (3) The “seven heads” of 17:9-11 favor the Nero date. The five kings who have fallen are Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius. The “one who is” is Nero. The one to come and remain “only a little while” is Galba, who reigned for only seven months.
 
But, in reply, it might be pointed out that the reference to the temple can be interpreted symbolically. The identification of 666 with NRWN QSR was unknown to Irenaeus when he listed the various candidates in the early third century. And neither Otho nor Vitellius (who succeeded Galba A.D. 69) make good candidates for the beast of Revelation 17:11. Their reigns were even shorter than his!
 
The Domitian date, on the other hand, explains the internal evidence well, its proponents argue. Mounce writes, “The Roman Empire is personified as a beast who demands universal worship (13:4, 15-17; 14:9; 16:2; 19:20), insisting that everyone bear his ‘mark’ or be put to death (13:15-17; 14:9: 16:2; 19:20; 20:4).”[iv] While Nero’s persecution of Christians was politically motivated and limited to Rome, Domitian’s persecution was religiously motivated—Christians would not worship Caesar as “Lord”— and spread beyond Rome. But, in reply, even Domitian’s persecution does not seem to match the intensity of the one described in Revelation.
 
Whichever date one finally adopts, perhaps it is wisest to consider the times in which Revelation was written, rather than the time at which it was written. They were difficult times for Christians, if we are to believe the language of martyrdom that pervades John’s Apocalypse (e.g., 17:6, 18:24, 19:2). And difficult times always call for a resilient faith—whoever the specific emperor may be.
 
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[i] Robert H. Mounce, The Book of Revelation, rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998), 15-16.
[ii] Quoted in Mounce, Revelation, 16.
[iii] According to Mounce, Revelation, 19-21.
[iv] Mounce, Revelation, 16.
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2 thoughts on “When Was Revelation Written?

  1. RICHARD SCHURZ says:

    Hi,

    Enclosed is a Bible study of the 7 Bible clues which reveal the identity of the coming antichrist of the Great Tribulation. Hoping for your comments and feedback.

    Your eternal friend in Jesus,

    Richard

    WHAT ARE THE 7 BIBLE CLUES WHICH REVEAL THE IDENTITY OF THE COMING ANTICHRIST??

    Revelation 13:17b,18: “The mark of the beast {Or antichrist} is the *NAME* of the Beast or the number of *HIS NAME*. This calls for wisdom. If anyone has insight, *LET HIM* calculate the number of the Beast {Even in AD 96 when Revelation was written}, for it is a man’s number {Or “Number of a MAN”}. *HIS* number is *666*.” God has promised in the above inspired passage that any saint {Even in AD 96–which implies that the name was known in AD 96} with spiritual wisdom and insight may calculate the name of the beast which is a *MAN’S NAME* and adds up to 666.
    In Thess 2:3 the Beast of the End-Times is called a “*MAN* of sin or lawlessness” or very SINFUL MAN and therefore the name of the Beast which adds up to 666 is a *MAN’S* name which is also confirmed in Rev 13:17b,18 above. Therefore, the NAME of the Beast which adds up to 666 is a sinful *MAN’S NAME* and could not be the name of a woman or a city, country, computer or Satan, etc.. Rev 13:16,17: “He {The False Prophet} forced everyone… to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead. No one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast {Nero Caesar??} or the number of his name {666}. The antichrist is called a beast 36 {6×6} times in Revelation.
    Actually there are 7 BIBLE CLUES that show who the antichrist of the future 1260-day Tribulation will be. By an amazing coincidence all 7 Bible clues can be applied to Nero Caesar!!
    {1} The anti-christ will be a “MAN OF SIN” or very sinful MAN as per 2 Thess 2:3 above.
    {2} The number of this sinful man’s name is 666 as per Rev 13:16-18. The Bible was written by 40 divinely inspired Hebrews in Hebrew and Greek; so then it is highly probable that this man’s name adds up to 666 in Hebrew or Greek. Nero Caesar’s name adds up to 666 in Hebrew which we will show later in this Bible study.
    {3} This sinful man whose name adds up to 666 died BEFORE AD 96 when Revelation was written.{See Rev 17:8 below} We will show later why Revelation was written between Sept AD 95 and Sept AD 96. Nero Caesar lived from December 15th, AD 37 to June 9th AD 68.
    {4} This sinful man who was alive and then died before AD 96 was FATALLY WOUNDED by a sword wound to his head. Nero Caesar committed suicide with a sword wound to his head on June 9th, AD 68. {See Rev 13:3 and Rev 13:14 below}
    {5} This very sinful man who died before AD 96 was a KING in the Roman Empire as per Daniel 7:24. There were 11 Roman Kings or Caesars who died before AD 96 including the 6th Roman Caesar who killed Paul and Peter in AD 66; and whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew. Domitian Caesar was the 12th Caesar who was alive when Revelation was written in AD 96.
    {6} The beast is also called an 8th KING who ruled before AD 96 as one of 7 KINGS crowned by the city on 7 hills. {Rev 17:9-11} The identity of these 8 KINGS will be discussed later in this article.
    {7} This very sinful ROMAN KING whose name adds up to 666 and who was fatally wounded by a sword before AD 96, will “COME UP FROM THE *ABYSS* or hell as per Rev 11:7 & Rev 17:8. We know that the ABYSS is HELL by comparing 2 Peter 2:4 with Luke 8:30b,31. We can be sure that Nero Caesar is now in the Abyss or Hell since he killed Paul and Peter and thousands of Christians and sent Vespasian {the father of Titus and Domitian Caesar} to kill the Jews and destroy their Temple. The MAN OF SIN or Nero also killed his own mother and killed his pregnant wife by kicking her in the stomach.
    Revelation 17:8: The beast, which you saw, once was {alive}, Now {in AD 96} is not {alive} and will come up out of the Abyss and go to his destruction. The inhabitants of the earth whose names have not been written in the book life.. .. will be astonished when they see the beast, because he once was {Before AD 96}, now {In AD 96} is not {Alive} and yet will come. Rev 13:14: He {The False Prophet} will order the inhabitants of the earth to set up an image in honor of the beast who was {FATALLY-Rev 13:3} wounded by the sword and yet lived.” Rev 13:3: One of the heads of the beast seemed to have had a fatal wound. but the fatal wound had been HEALED!! The whole world was astonished and followed the beast.

    When I was a missionary in Israel I studied the Hebrew language. One of the first things that you learn when you study the OT Ancient Hebrew language {Which is also the language of Israel today!} is that the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet ALSO represent 22 numbers! When you read Psalm 119 you will note that the 176 sentences are divided into 22 sections; each section with 8 sentences or verses praising the Word of God. These 22 sections are each headed by one of the letters in the Hebrew alphabet in the exact same order as shown below. The ancient Hebrew language {Which is exactly the same as the modern Hebrew language} frequently used the letters of their alphabet to designate NUMBERS IN THE OT as follows:
    ALEPH=1. BETH=2. GIMEL=3. DALET=4. HE=5. VAV=6. ZAYIN=7. CHETH=8. TETH=9. YODH=10. KAPH=20. LAMED=30. MEM=40. NUN=50. SAMEKH=60. AYIN=70. PE=80. TSADHE=90. KOPH=100. RESH=200. SHIN=300. TAV=400.
    NOTE: Most vowel sounds excpt “O” {VAV} are not used as letters in Hebrew. These vowel sounds are designated by dots and dashes under their *PRECEDING* consonants. In Hebrew “N” is added on the end of all foreign names ending in “O”. Therefore, the foreign name of Nero would be “NERON” in Hebrew. The name Nero Caesar would be pronounced Neron Kaysar in Hebrew. The “E” in Neron and the 2 “A” sounds in Kaysar {There is no “C” in Hebrew} are designated by dots and dashes under their preceding consonants and therefore are not letters in the 22 letter Hebrew alphabet, and so have no numerical value. Neron in Hebrew would use 4 letters with numerical value: N-R-O-N and Kaysar in Hebrew would use 3 letters with numerical value: K-S-R. There would be a dot under the first N to show the “E” sound in NEron There would also be 2 dots under the “K” to show the “AY” sound in KAYsar and a dash under the “S” to show the “AH” sound in KaySAHr.
    The 4 letters with numerical value in NERON would be {SEE TABLE ABOVE} N = 50; R = RESH = 200; O = VAV = 6; and N = NUN = 50 and 50+20+6+50 equals 306. The 3 letters with numerical value in “KAYSAR woyld be K = KOPH = 100; S = SAMEKH = 60; and R = RESH =200 and 100+60+200 equals 360. And so the numerical value of Nero in Hebrew is 306 and the numerical value of Caesar in Hebrew is 360, and therefore the numerical value of Nero Caesar is 306+360 or exactly *666*!
    There is a very interesting footnote in the revised Standard Version concerning the number 666 which states that some ancient manuscripts have the number **616** which *DOUBLY* confirms that Nero Caesar may be the Anti-Christ!! You will note that the Hebrew language adds an “N” to all foreign names eding in “O”. Now “N” or “NUN” in Hebrew has a numerical value of **50**!! and so if you decided not to add the last “N” in NERON then Nero Caesar would add up to exactly **616** in Hebrew. I think you will admit that this is an absolutely amazing coincidence!!
    Any honest Hebrew language scholar will confirm that the letters of Nero Caesar’s name add up to 666 in the Hebrew language whose 22 letters are also 22 numbers as shown above. Since all of the prophecies concerning the Antichrist are written in OT Hebrew {Like Daniel 7:8-25} or NT Koine Greek it would then seem logical that God would use one of these 2 Bible languages to identify the Name of the Beast whose letters add up to 666. One of the problems of doing this in NT Koine Greek is that the letters of their alphabet are not also numbers. And therefore you can only assign a numerical value of 22 to the 22nd letter, etc.. Using this formula you could not get any name to add up to over 250, let alone 666. You have the same problem with English and all other languages other than the Hebrew language!
    NOTE: The 3 different Greek words used in Revelation 13:18b to arrive at the number 666 are the 3 different Greek words for 600 and 60 and 6 and not 6 + 6 + 6.
    Will the 6th Caesar {Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius & the *6th* is NERO who ordered the execution of Paul & Peter in AD *66*} be the Beast who comes up from the Abyss {Or Hell-See Rev 11:7 & Rev 17:8} in the coming Great Tribulation??

    Rev 1:8,9: “I, John, your brother and companion in the suffering and kingdom and patient endurance that are ours in Jesus, was on the island of Patmos beacuse of the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus.” We know that the island of Patmos was the site of a Roman prison in the first Century and that the Apostle John was suffering in this prison because of his religious beliefs. {As per Rev 1:8,9 above} The island of Patmos is about 30 miles from the port of Ephesus in Western Turkey.
    History tells us that the second huge Roman persecution of Christians {The first was NERO’S PERSECUTION OF MAY AD 64 TO JUNE AD 68 OR 49 MONTHS} occurred in the last year of the reign of Domitian Caesar which would have been from September AD 95 to September AD 96. During the last year of his rule Domitian Caesar decreed that everyone in the Roman Empire must worship idols of former Roman Caesar’s or else they would be killed or put in prison. Historical documents show us that the Apostle John {Who then lived in Ephesus} lived to about AD 100 and therefore would have been alive during Domitian’s evil decree of September Ad 95 to September of AD 96. Since we can be sure that the Apostle John would never worship an idol of a Roman Caesar it is then highly probable that John was put in prison on Patmos Isle sometime during Domitian’s evil decree from September AD 95 to September AD 96. Rev 1:10,11: “On the Lord’s Day I {John} was in the spirit and I heard a loud voice {Jesus} said, ‘Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the 7 churches: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatria, Sardis, Philadelphis and Laodicea.” The last 6 churches are all in Western Turkey within 77 miles of Ephesus. About 50 years earlier Paul had started churches in these 7 cities. Paul always had Jewish converts in the cities where he preached since he had the habit of teaching in Jewish synagogues on the Sabbath. It was then highly probable that all 7 of these chuches had Jewish believers who were very familiar with the Hebrew language and of course knew that the 22 letters of the Jewish alphabet are also 22 numbers and also remembered the first Roman persecution by Nero or the “MAN OF SIN” about 30 years earlier when Paul & Peter and thousands of Christians were martyred because of Nero Caesar. Nero also sent Vespasian, the father of Titus and Domitian; to kill the Jews and destroy their Temple. He also killed his mother and killed his pregnant wife by kicking her in the stomach.

    Christian writings in the early 2nd century AD show that many Christians at that time believed that Nero Caesar {Who adds up to 666 in Hebrew} would return as the Anti-Christ of the End-Times. Rev 13:18: “This calls for wisdom. If anyone has insight {Even in AD 96}, let him {Even in AD 96} calculate the Beast, for it is a man’s number. His {Nero Caesar’s} number is 666!” And so the above Scripture absolutely guarantees that anyone with spiritual wisdom and insight could figure out who the Anti-Christ of the End-Times would be even when Revelation was first given to the churches in AD 96, and that the number of his name adds up to 666. This would of course mean that the future antichrist must have been alive before AD 96 when this Scripture was given to the churches. Nero Caesar {Whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew} certainly qualified since he lived from Dec 15th, AD 37 to June 9th, AD 68 when he was fatally wounded by his own SWORD.
    Revelation 17:8b: “Those whose names have not been written in the Book of Life will be astonished when they see the beast {666}, because he once was {Alive–AD 37-68} now in AD 96 is not {Alive}, and yet will come.” {During the Great Tribulation} The Beast once was {Alive before AD 96} now is not {Alive in AD 96}, and will come out of the ABYSS {Or HELL} and go to his destruction.” {On the last Day-See Rev 19:20b}
    The fact that the ABYSS is HELL is confirmed by comparing 2 Peter 2:4 with Luke 8:30b,31: 2 Peter 2:4: “God did not spare the angels when they sinned but sent them into HELL, putting them in gloomy dungeons to be held for judgment.” Luke 8:30b,31: “Many demons {Or Hell’s Angels} had gone into him {A demon-possessed man}. And they begged Jesus repeatedly not to order them into the ABYSS! {Because they had already been in Hell or the ABYSS before!!} Also in Luke 16:22-24 we read that there was a rich man already in HELL at the time of Jesus. Now we can be absolutely certain that an evil Roman king from the city on 7 hills; who was fatally wounded by a sword *BEFORE* Revelation was written in AD 96; and whose name adds up to 666 is presently in this ABYSS or HELL!!
    All historical documents agree that Nero Caesar {The 6th Caesar who ordered the execution of Paul & Peter in AD 66 and whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew} was fatally wounded by his own SWORD on June 9th AD 68. In Revelation 13:14b we learn that the False Prophet of 666 will order the building of a statue of 666 “Who was {FATALLY-See Rev 13:3} wounded by the SWORD and yet lived!” {AGAIN} Nero Caesar {Whose name adds up to 666 in Hebrew} again qualifies for this inspired clue as to the identity of the antichrist. Nero’s 4-year Roman persecution began when he blamed the Christians for the burning of Rome in AD 64; and ended when Nero was fatally wounded by his own SWORD on June 9th, AD 68.
    Almost all conservative Bible theologians agree that the 4th Beast of Daniel 7:7,19 is the *ROMAN* Empire. In Daniel 7:20,21 we learn that a little horn who is also called a *KING* in Daniel 7:24 will come from this *ROMAN* Empire. Daniel 7:24b,25-27: “A *KING* {From the *ROMAN* Empire–Nero Caesar??} will arise…. He will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints. The saints will be handed over to him for a Time, Times and ½ a Time.” “But the court will sit, and his {666 or the Roman King or the Beast or Nero Caesar-See Rev 19:20,21 and 2 Thess 2:8} power will be taken away and completely destroyed forever. *THEN* the sovereignty, power and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole Heaven will be handed over to the saints, the people of the Most High. His Kingdom will be an everlasting Kingdom.”
    Revelation 6:7,8: When the Lamb opened the 4th seal, I heard the voice of the 4th living creature say, “Come!” I looked, and there before me was a pale horse! Its rider was named Death {666, who will cause the death of millions} and Hades {The False Prophet who will cause millions to go to Hades by receiving the mark of 666} was following close behind him. THEY {Nero Caesar and the False Prophet} were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth. Daniel 7:8,20,24 says that an evil Roman King will conquer 3 of the 10 kingdoms {which will cover one fourth of the earth??}–Russia {Combined with former Soviet Union}, China and India cover one fourth of the earth and have over one fourth of the world’s population! These 3 kingdoms may object and become jealous of 666 and his False Prophet ruling every country in the world.
    The following 10 powerful nations have about 50% of the world’s population and certainly have the military, political and “religious” power to control and rule all the nations of the world: #1. United States #2. Russia #3. China {1.3 Billion} #4. Great Britain #5. France #6. India {1.1 Billion} #7. Germany #8. Japan #9. Brazil #10. Egypt. After appointing 10 kings who have never before ruled {See Rev 17:12,13} of these 10 nations 666 will then have “authority over every tribe, people, language and nation” as per Rev 13:7b, from his headquarters in Rome. 666 and his False prophet will then quickly gain complete control over the radio, tv, internet, newspaper, book and magazine medias.
    Revelation 13:4: Men worshipped the dragon {Satan}, and they also worshipped the beast {666 or Nero Caesar} and asked, “Who is like the beast? Who can make war against him?
    The next 2 paragraphs are an interesting SPECULATION about what might happen at the beginning of the 1260-day Great Tribulation and who might be the future false propet of 666.
    Revelation 6:6: “A quart of wheat for a day’s wages!” This phrase can also be translated “A loaf of bread for a day’s wages.” This event will occur at the coming of the black horse rider {Rev 6:5} which will take place just before or at the beginning of the Great Tribulation. Because of the world’s present economic crises the peoples in the 40 poorest counties now have to pay a full day’s wages for a loaf of bread as per Rev 6:6. And if the world experiences a world-wide depression this event could occur in over 100 countries. The world economic crises is rapidly accelarating. Many countries such as the Phillipines are far worse off than people in the USA during the Great Depression when there was 20 % unemployment. Two years ago there was 8 % unemployment in the Phillipines. One year ago there was 20% unemployment in the Philipines and NOW there is 40 % unemployment!! The world economic crises is rapidly accelarating. There are now 70 countries with unemployment rates of over 30 % and this should rapidly increase. And then the world will certainly be looking for an Economic Savior such as 666 and his very deceptive False Prophet. They will be looking for someone who promises CHANGE!! If the Great Tribulation would begin in the near future is there a well-known, powerful world leader that may qualify to be the deceptive False Prophet of 666 who will promise CHANGE you can believe in!! Will this powerful world leader try to bankrupt the USA which will in turn cause a worldwide depression and cause the price of a loaf of bread to cost a full day’s wages??? The antichrist is called a beast 36{6×6} times in Revelation and the false prophet is also called a beast in Rev 13:11. Obama has nicknamed his presidential car “THE BEAST”.
    And so Nero Caesar with the help of the armies of the False Prophet {Obama??} and other nations aligned with him will conquer 1/4 of the world {See Rev 6:8; 13:4b} and then 666 will appoint 10 kings over 10 kingdoms to rule the world who have never before ruled {see Rev 17:12-14} and who will then take orders from 666 and his False Prophet from their headquarters in the evil city on 7 HILLS or Rome.{See Rev 17:9} NOTE: There are many statues of the exact likeness of Nero Caesar including a 151 foot statue in the “Golden House” in Rome. The statue of Liberty {Without pedestal} is also exactly 151 feet high… hmmm. At the beginning of Great Tribulation the False Prophet of 666, Rev 13:14: “Will order the people of the earth to set up a statue in honor of the beast who was wounded {Fatally-Rev 13:3} by the SWORD and yet lived!” {Again} This staue of the Beast will be the “exact likeness” of Nero Caesar and could possibly be seen on World Wide TV so that people of all nations will be able to worship this statue as per Rev 13:15b. Obama;’s Air Force 1 plane just had a photo op with the Statue of Liberty….Hmmm….

    “Babylon” is called a CITY 7 times in Revelation, chapter 18, and a SEAPORT in Rev 18:17-19. Peter was inspired to call Rome “Babylon” in I Peter 5:13. Rome is a CITY and a SEAPORT built on 7 HILLS! Babylon and Jerusalem are not seaports and are not built on 7 hills!
    Rev 13:14-17: The False Prophet deceived the inhabitants of the earth. He ordered them to set up an image in honor of the beast who was {FATALLY-Rev 13:3} wounded by the sword and yet lived. He was given power to give breath to the image of the first beast {666}, so that it could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed. He also forced everyone to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast {NERO CAESAR} or the number of his name {666}. And God will supply all the needs of His faithful and corageous Tribulation saints just as He miraculously supplied all the needs of the Israelites for 40 years in the wilderness. {See Matt 6:31-34}
    Rev 13:5-10: The beast was given a mouth to utter proud words and blasphemies and to exercise his authority for 42 {30-day} months {Or 1260 days or time, times and 1/2 a time-See Dan 7:25 & Dan 12:1,2,6b,7b}….. He was given power to make war against the saints and to conquer them. And he was given authority over every tribe, people, language and nation. All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast–all whose names have not been written in the book of life belonging to the Lamb…. This call for patient endurance and faithfulness on the part of the saints.
    Matt 24:9-12…Matt 24:29-31: Jesus says, “Then {During the 42-month Great Tribulation} you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and you will be hated by ALL nations because of Me. At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other, and many false prophets will appear and deceive many people. Because of the increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold, but he who stands firm to the end will be saved… Immediately after the distress of those {1260} days ‘the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light and the stars will fall from the sky.’ At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the **CLOUDS**{See Rev 1:7; Mark 14:62 & I Thess 4:16,17} of the sky, with power and great glory. And He will send His angels with a loud **TRUMPET**{See Rev 10:7; 11:15-18; I Cor 15:51,52; I Thess 4:16} call, and they will gather His elect from the 4 winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.” {Mark 13:27 adds, “From the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.
    There will be 2 Comings of Jesus on the same Last Day: The first above was *FOR* His saints and then after the Marraige Feast of the Lamb Jesus will come *WITH* His saints as per Rev 19:6-8; 11,14,19-21: “Hallelujah! For our Lord God Almighty reigns, Let us rejoice and be glad and give Him glory! For the Wedding of the Lamb has come, and His bride has made herself ready, fine linen, bright and clean was given her to wear…. I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a white horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True… The armies of Heaven were following Him, riding on white horses and dressed in fine linen, white and clean… Then I saw a beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against the Rider on the horse and His army {See Rev 17:14 & Jude 14,15}. But the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who had performed the miraculous signs and his behalf. With these signs he had deluded those who had received the mark of the beast and worshipped his image. The two of them were thrown ALIVE into the fiery lake of burning sulfur {See 2 Thess 2:8}. The rest of them were killed by the sword that came out of the mouth of the Rider on the horse, and all the birds gorged themselves on their flesh. Rev 20:10b: They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

    WILL THE CITY ON 7 HILLS OR ROME BE THE END-TIME BABYLON?? AND WHO ARE THE 7 KINGS {REV 17:10} FROM THE CITY BUILT ON 7 HILLS??

    Most Bible scholars believe that the book of First Peter was written shortly after the beginning of Nero’s Roman persecution of Christians in AD 64 because of I Peter 4:12,13 & 5:8,9. We know that Peter and his wife were living in Rome at this time. Peter was inspired to write in I Peter 5:13: “She {Peter’s wife} who is in *BABYLON* {Nickname for *ROME*!} sends you her greetings, and so does my son Mark.” Apparently some Christians including Peter were inspired to call ROME “BABYLON” after Nero’s terrible persecution of Christians starting in AD 64. This is very interesting since the evil city of the End-Times is called “BABYLON” 6 times in Revelation 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2,10,21. Ancient Babylon Had destroyed God’s Holy Temple and God’s Holy City, Jerusalem; and killed, exiled and persecuted God’s people for 70 years. Actually all encyclopedias agree that Babylon was completely evacuated in 275 BC and completely destroyed by 141 BC. The Wikipedia encyclopedia states, “By 141 BC, when the Parthian Empire took over the region, Babylon was in complete desolation and obscurity.” The only question that remains is: Was Babylon rebuilt so that there could be people living in Babylon around AD 65 when Peter wrote 1 Peter 5:13??? Which leads us to the promises of God in Jeremiah 50:1-3,13: This is the word the Lord spoke through Jeremiah concerning Babylon..”Babylon will be captured… A nation from the north will attack her and lay waste her land. No one will live in it; both men and animals will flee away!” Jeremiah 52:52:61-64: When you get to Babylon, see that you read all these words aloud. Then say, “O Lord, you have said you will destroy this place, so that neither man nor animal will live in it; IT WILL BE DESOLATE FOREVER When you finish readiing this scroll, tie a stone to it and throw it into the Euphrates. Then say, “So will Babylon SINK TO RISE NO MORE because of the disaster I will bring upon her.” And God ALWAYS keeps His promises.
    And God kept His promise for about 2284 years; since ancient Babylon is still a pile of rubble to this very day, and will remain that way until the Last Day of the Planet Earth; for God always keeps His promises. In Revelation “Babylon” {Nicknamed Rome by Peter} is a “GREAT SEAPORT” in Rev 18:17-19; JUST LIKE ROME and UNLIKE Babylon whose ruins are NOW 4 miles from the very shallow Euphrates River; or Jerusalem which is 2000 to 3000 feet above sea level and 35 miles from the Mediterranean Sea. Babylon is also completely FLAT whereas the End-Time “Babylon” will be a city built on 7 Hills JUST LIKE ROME!!
    Rev 17:18: “The woman you saw {Rev 17:3–Who sits with the Beast with 7 heads} is the great *CITY* {Rome–nicknamed Babylon in I Peter 5:13–See Rev 17:5a} that will rule over the kings of the earth.” {During the Great Tribulation} Rev 17:9-11: “This calls for a mind with wisdom. The 7 heads are 7 hills on which the woman {Or city of Rome} sits.” Rome is a city built on 7 HILLS!! They {The 7 Heads} are also 7 KINGS {From the city on 7 hills or Rome}. Five {Of these 7 KINGS} have fallen {Or died before AD 96}, one {the 6th KING} *IS* {Or reigning when Revelation was written in AD 96}, the other {or 7th KING} has not yet come, but when he {The 7th KING} does come, he must remain for for a little while. {Possibly the False Prophet of 666 {Or Black Horse Rider} who will be anointed by Satan just before the coming of the 8th KING {Or Pale Horse Rider} who ruled before as one of the 7 Kings} The beast {Nero Caesar who once was {Alive from Dec 15, AD 37 to June 9, AD 68}, and NOW {In AD 96} is not {Alive} is an 8th KING. He belongs to the 7 {KINGS}, because He once was {Alive-AD 37-68} NOW {In AD 96} is not {Alive}, and yet will come {1260 days before the Last Day}.”
    WHO ARE OR WILL BE THE 8 KINGS OF REV 17:10,11?? ROME APPOINTED THE JEWISH KINGS AFTER THEY CONQUERED ISRAEL IN 63 BC AND THE 7 KINGS OF REV 13:1B all had “blasphemous names” so we can assume that they were evil kings who had killed or persecuted Jesus and His followers. And so the first 3 EVIL KINGS {Who are all called KINGS in God’s Word{See Matt 2:1; Mark 6:25,26 & Acts 12:1} were all Israeli KINGS who killed or persecuted Jesus and His followers} and who were appointed by the evil city on 7 hills or Rome:

    AND SO THE 8 KINGS WERE OR WILL BE:

    ** {#1} ** Herod the Great who tried to kill the baby Jesus: Rev 12:3-5: “Another sign appeared in Heaven : An enormous red DRAGON {Or Satan-See Rev 12:9} with 7 heads {Or 7 KINGS-See Rev 17:10a}… and 7 crowns on his {7} heads {Satan crowns the 7 kings whereas 666 crowns the 10 horns}. The DRAGON {Or Satan} stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that he might devour her Child the moment he was born {Thru his first evil king or Herod the Great as per Matt 2:13b,16!!} She gave birth to a Son {Jesus} a male Child, who will rule the nations with an iron scepter!!”
    **{#2}** Herod who killed John the Baptist and ridiculed and tortured Jesus {See Matt 14:1-12; Luke 23:7-11}
    **{#3}** Herod Antipas who killed the Apostle James and tried to kill Peter. {See Acts 12:1-5,19-23} **{#4}** Nero Caesar who will come again as the 8th KING who will be the anti-christ of the End-Times.
    **{#5}** Titus Caesar who killed thousands of Christians when he destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in AD 70. Titus is also mentioned as a “Prince” in Daniel 9:26. Titus Caesar was the oldest son of Vespasian Caesar who was Caesar from Dec AD 69 to AD 79; and therefore heir and Crown *PRINCE* to the throne in Rome and was Caesar from AD 79 to AD 81.
    **{#6**}** Domitian Caesar the 6th KING {“NOW IS”} was ruling in AD 96, and decreed in the last year of his reign {Sept AD 95 to Sept AD 96} that everyone must worship former Roman Caesars {Like Nero} or be killed and put in prison. {Like the Apostle John who was living in Ephesus at that time.}
    **{#7}** Possibly the False Prophet of 666 who will be crowned the 7th evil King of Rome by Satan shortly before the coming of the:
    **{8th}** KING or Nero Caesar {The End-Time Beast or Anti-Christ}; who ruled before as one of the **7 KINGS** The 4TH & 8TH KING will come up up from the Abyss or Hell exactly 1260 days before the last Day to rule from the evil city on 7 hills or Rome.
    Rev 17:6: “The woman {ROME} will be drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of those who bear testimony to Jesus.” While in in Rev 13:7 we learn that the Anti-Christ will be given “power to make war against the saints and to conquer them.” And in Rev 13:15b we read that 666 will “cause all who refuse to worship his statue to be killed.” We must therefore conclude that the evil city “on 7 hills” or Rome will be the HEADQUARTERS of 666 during the Great Tribulation.
    The Anti-Christ will very quickly conquer 1/4th of the world with many miracles {See Rev 6:8; 13:4} and will then appoint 10 Kings who have never before ruled over the 10 most powerful nations of the world {See Rev 17:12-14,17}. The following 10 powerful nations have about 50% of the world’s population and certainly have the military, political and “religious” power to control and rule all the nations of the world: #1. United States #2. Russia #3. China {1.3 Billion} #4. Great Britain #5. France #6. India {1.1 Billion} #7. Germany #8. Japan #9. Brazil #10. Egypt. Brazil borders every country in South America except for Chile. Egypt is the university, intellectual and theological center of Islam. And then 666 will have “authority over every tribe, people, language and nation” as per Rev 13:7b, from his headquarters in the evil city built on 7 hills or Rome.

  2. A more important question is Why was Revelation written? It was written to help the end time saints know, how things would flow in the last days.

    News reports and financial market trading reflects that we are living in the End Times, as the prophesied Beast Of Revelation 13:1-4 is rising to power in the Eurozone.

    The ongoing combined Yahoo Finance Chart of Ireland, and other EU nations, reflects that Ireland, EIRL, and its Bank, IRE, as well as Seagate, STX and Ingersoll Rand, IR, have been liberalism’s currency carry trade and debt trade darlings, largely on the guarantee of the Troika’s economic governance and implementation of austerity.

    Awesome financial rewards came to those who trusted that the Troika would lord it over Ireland and risked nation investment, banking investment and corporate investment in there.

    The Grand Finale of liberalism’s finance is seen in the Finviz chart of Ireland, EIRL, and its Bank, IRE, racing higher in an investment crack up boom, while Greece, GREK, and its Bank, NBG, trade parabolically lower, on the peaking out of the EUR/JPY at 135.15.

    Booms are always followed by a horrific bust; such is the nature of the business cycle. Great was the investment boom; how horrific and gruesome will be the bust.

    Ireland was the test bed for evolving Eurozone regional governance.

    Now, EU nannycrats are beginning EU fiscal rule, by exercising in policies of diktat in regional governance and schemes of debt servitude in totalitarian collectivism. The Telegraph reports The EU Uses New Budget Powers To Demand More Austerity In Italy And Spain. The European Commission has exercised historic new EU powers allowing it to revise national budgets for the first time.

    Regional nannycrat pooled sovereignty, in particular the sovereignty of regional governance and totalitarian collectivism, and its debt servitude and diktat seigniorage, is underwriting regional security, stability, and sustainability.

    The beast regime of regional governance and totalitarian collectivism, with its seven heads occupancy mankind’s seven institutions, and its ten horns ruling in the world’s ten regional zones, Revelation 13:1-4, is rising from sovereign insolvency and banking insolvency of the nations, and is making landfall in the Eurozone, occupying with feet of a bear in EU banking supervision in Frankfurt Germany; with mouth of a lion in NATO headquarters in Brussels; and camouflage of a leopard in the statist, collective experience of not only Obamacare, but strong ongoing technocratic governance in Greece.

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