Review of ‘Finding the Will of God’ by Bruce K. Waltke

Finding_the_Will_of_God_350Bruce K. Waltke, Finding the Will of God: A Pagan Notion? 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2016).

In this book, Bruce K. Waltke asks a provocative question: “Is finding God’s will a biblical idea?” He concludes that it is not. Indeed, he claims that phrases such as “finding God’s will” and “seeking the will of God” reflect “a pagan notion” and amount to “divination,” which the Bible condemns. This is a strong claim, of course—perhaps a bit too strong.

On the other hand, Waltke is right to point out at least two faulty assumptions in the notion of “finding God’s will.” The first is that God makes His will difficult to know. When Christians become anxious about “finding God’s will,” they are implicitly saying that God hasn’t made His will known to them or that He is hiding it or that it is, in some sense, “lost” and in need of “finding.” But do such implications square with the character of God as revealed in the Bible?

“If we really believe in God as the perfectly loving Father,” Waltke writes, “we can do away with our notions of him as an almighty manipulator and con man who never quite lets us discover his will. God is not a magician or trickster. God loves us enough that he sent his Son to die on the cross to pay the penalty for our sins. So does it make sense that he would play games with his children, hiding his will?”

Another faulty assumption with “finding God’s will” has to do with people’s motivation. Waltke relates a conversation he had with a young man who was “seeking God’s will.” He says, “I asked that young man who his god is. Is it the Almighty God, who created us and in love sent his Son to die on the cross for us? Or is it personal success, with the right car, the perfect home, and the ideal job? God is more interested in my holiness than in my success.”

I once saw an Instagram meme with the first of Campus Crusade’s “Four Spiritual Laws” printed in the foreground: “God loves you and offers a wonderful plan for your life.” In the background was the picture of a Christian facing lions in the Roman Colosseum. It’s a funny way of making a serious point: Sometimes, God’s will for His people involves suffering, pain, and even death. As Paul wrote in Philippians 3:10: “I want to know Christ—yes, to know the power of his resurrection and participation in his sufferings, becoming like him in his death.”


Given that most people interested in “finding God’s will” want to avoid that kind of outcome, you can see why Waltke thinks “finding God’s will” is a “pagan notion.”

The antidote to “finding God’s will” is “following the guidance of God.” Waltke begins with the assumption that God reveals His will for us in Scripture. “What God desires from each of us [is] that we humbly think his thoughts; in this way we humbly learn to obey him.” Once we have learned God’s will from Scripture, we turn to what we desire to do. “God created you,” Waltke writes, “and if you have the mind of Christ, he shapes your perspective and character.” Often God leaves decisions up to the Christ-shaped choices of His followers. In that sense, Waltke affirms what Augustine wrote centuries ago: “Love God and do what you want.” After the Bible and personal desire, Waltke discusses “wise counsel” from others, “circumstances, “sound reasoning,” and “miraculous interventions.” People whose thoughts are shaped by Scripture, whose desires are formed in Christlikeness, who receive advice from godly believers, who make the most of the circumstances God has placed them in, who uses their brain, and who responds affirmatively when God miraculously leads them are following God’s guidance. They are doing God’s will.

As a Pentecostal, I read Waltke’s book with people in my “tribe” in mind. Pentecostals are Bible people through and through, but there are also restless people in our Movement who are always looking for the latest communiqué from God—a sign, a voice, a vision—about what to do next. Waltke’s book is a good counterbalance to that tendency, a reminder that Scripture is “the infallible, authoritative rule of faith and conduct,” in the words of the Assemblies of God’s Statement of Fundamental Truths. While Waltke—a Calvinist theologian—is open to miraculous interventions, my guess is that he would say that they happen less frequently than we say they do. Pentecostal readers need to keep this difference of emphasis and experience in mind as they read his book.

Still, I recommend Finding the Will of God: A Pagan Notion? It challenges faulty assumptions about “finding God’s will” and sketches an easy-to-remember framework for “following the guidance of God.” It would make a good resource for a sermon series on the will of God, though Pentecostals will want to tweak it here and there. Discussion questions at the end of each chapter make it appropriate for small group use too.

P.S. This review first appeared at

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Review of ‘Philosophy in Seven Sentences’ by Douglas Groothuis

Philosophy_cover_350Douglas Groothuis, Philosophy in Seven Sentences: A Small Introduction to a Vast Topic (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2016).

Philosophy in Seven Sentences is, as the subtitle puts it, “a small introduction to a vast topic.” Using seven sentences from famous philosophers, Douglas Groothuis (pronounced GROAT-hise) introduces readers to important questions in epistemology (the study of knowing) and metaphysics (the study of being). Here are the sentences he chooses:

  • Protagoras: “Man is the measure of all things.”
  • Socrates: “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
  • Aristotle: “All men by nature desire to know.”
  • Augustine: “You have made us for yourself, and restless is our heart until it comes to rest in you.”
  • Descartes: “I think, therefore I am.”
  • Pascal: “The heart has its reasons of which reason knows nothing.”
  • Kierkegaard: “The greatest hazard of all, losing one’s self, can occur very quietly in the world, as if it were nothing at all.”

For each sentence, Groothuis offers a biographical sketch of the author, explains why he stated it, and offers commentary on its relevance today.

I studied philosophy in college and have read avocationally in the discipline ever since. Groothuis’s treatment reminds me why I found the study of philosophy so appealing: It forces you to work through the foundations and implications of your beliefs. In that sense, philosophy is “the art of thinking well about what matters most.”

I also grew up in a Christian home. When I announced my desire to study philosophy, my mother blanched. Every letter she sent me at college—this was the age before email—ended with a quotation of Proverbs 3:5: “Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding…” She was worried, in short, that thinking would cause me to lose my faith.

Well, I am a minister, so I guess her worst fears weren’t realized. But the sentiment is common enough, among both Christians and non-Christians. Rigorous thought and religious belief, it is assumed, are incompatible. The one must give way to the other.

But that’s simply not true. Groothuis himself is a Christian and a professor of philosophy at Denver Seminary. Four of the philosophers whose sentences he studies in this little book were Christians (Augustine, Descartes, Pascal, and Kierkegaard). Far from being the enemy of faith, good philosophy is the enemy of bad faith and unthoughtful theology. Christian parents worried about their high school graduates going off to college might want to give them this book to inoculate them against nonsense.

For the same reason, I would recommend this little introduction to pastors unfamiliar with philosophy. In an increasingly post-Christian society such as America is, pastors need to know how to navigate philosophical and worldview issues, if for no other reason than to effectively evangelize and disciple believers in a postmodern era. This book offers a relatively easy entry into topics such as relativism, the law of noncontradiction, belief in God, certainty in knowledge, and the like. Pastors seeking a more systematic treatment of arguments for Christianity (or in response to critics of Christianity) might want to pick up the author’s magisterial, Christian Apologetics.

My one complaint about this book is that it didn’t include any sentences about ethics, which is crucial to any study of philosophy. But an introduction cannot cover everything, and what this one covers is a great start.

P.S. This review first appeared at

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Happy St. Patrick’s Day!

In honor of St. Patrick’s Day, here’s the hymn attributed to that Christian saint…

I bind unto myself today
The strong Name of the Trinity,
By invocation of the same,
The Three in One and One in Three.

I bind this day to me for ever.
By power of faith, Christ’s incarnation;
His baptism in the Jordan river;
His death on Cross for my salvation;
His bursting from the spicèd tomb;
His riding up the heavenly way;
His coming at the day of doom;*
I bind unto myself today.

I bind unto myself the power
Of the great love of the cherubim;
The sweet ‘well done’ in judgment hour,
The service of the seraphim,
Confessors’ faith, Apostles’ word,
The Patriarchs’ prayers, the Prophets’ scrolls,
All good deeds done unto the Lord,
And purity of virgin souls.

I bind unto myself today
The virtues of the starlit heaven,
The glorious sun’s life-giving ray,
The whiteness of the moon at even,
The flashing of the lightning free,
The whirling wind’s tempestuous shocks,
The stable earth, the deep salt sea,
Around the old eternal rocks.

I bind unto myself today
The power of God to hold and lead,
His eye to watch, His might to stay,
His ear to hearken to my need.
The wisdom of my God to teach,
His hand to guide, His shield to ward,
The word of God to give me speech,
His heavenly host to be my guard.

Against the demon snares of sin,
The vice that gives temptation force,
The natural lusts that war within,
The hostile men that mar my course;
Or few or many, far or nigh,
In every place and in all hours,
Against their fierce hostility,
I bind to me these holy powers.

Against all Satan’s spells and wiles,
Against false words of heresy,
Against the knowledge that defiles,
Against the heart’s idolatry,
Against the wizard’s evil craft,
Against the death wound and the burning,
The choking wave and the poisoned shaft,
Protect me, Christ, till Thy returning.

Christ be with me, Christ within me,
Christ behind me, Christ before me,
Christ beside me, Christ to win me,
Christ to comfort and restore me.
Christ beneath me, Christ above me,
Christ in quiet, Christ in danger,
Christ in hearts of all that love me,
Christ in mouth of friend and stranger.

I bind unto myself the Name,
The strong Name of the Trinity;
By invocation of the same.
The Three in One, and One in Three,
Of Whom all nature hath creation,
Eternal Father, Spirit, Word:
Praise to the Lord of my salvation,
Salvation is of Christ the Lord.

Review of ‘Faith in the Voting Booth’ by Leith Anderson and Galen Carey

Voting_Booth_350Leith Anderson and Galen Carey, Faith in the Voting Booth: Practical Wisdom for Voting Well (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2016).

Today (March 15), voters from Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina, and Ohio cast ballots in the Democratic and Republican presidential primaries. Since I am a Missourian, I performed my civic duty and cast a ballot along with them. Voting is so routine in American life that we Americans often take it for granted. We shouldn’t, however. It is a great privilege and an awesome responsibility.

It also can be hard work. Choosing a candidate or supporting a referendum requires informed decision-making. What principles should guide us? What should our priorities be? Thoughtful citizens try to answer these questions as they enter the voting booth.

Faith in the Voting Booth is a primer on biblical principles and priorities for the thoughtful evangelical voter. Leith Anderson and Galen Carey are, respectively, president and vice president of governmental relations for the National Association of Evangelicals. The NAE is the largest organization of evangelicals in America, whose mission is “to honor God by connecting and representing evangelical Christians.”

Evangelical is “often portrayed as a political identity by the national press,” which Anderson and Carey note is fundamentally wrong. Evangelicalism is first and foremost a spiritual identity. The authors cite with approval historian David Bebbington’s list of “four convictions that identify evangelicals”: (1) conversion—having a “born again experience, (2) action—consisting of evangelism and social action, (3) Bible—Scripture is the top authority, and (4) cross—Jesus died to save people from sin. These four convictions unite evangelicals spiritually across partisan political lines.

Of course, it would be next to impossible for a person’s spiritual identity not to affect their political identity in some way. “The ultimate political statement is ‘Jesus is Lord,” Anderson and Carey point out. But American evangelicals do not always let their core convictions shape their political principles and priorities. For example, Lifeway Research conducted a survey of evangelical opinions on immigration. That study found, in part, that evangelicals were as likely to be influenced on that issue by “The media” as by “The Bible” and “Your local church” combined (slide 16). For people whose core convictions include the Bible’s supreme authority, that’s an alarming statistic.

The core of Faith in the Voting Booth is an examination of hot button issues from a biblically informed perspective. Anderson and Carey cite four broad areas “where most evangelicals agree most of the time.” These are biblical authority, life, religious freedom, and marriage. They then examine eight issues in more depth: poverty, racial and ethnic minorities, marriage and family, immigration, taxes, justice and jails, foreign policy, and environmentalism. The goal is to bring biblical principles and priorities to bear on public policies.

Faith in the Voting Booth is difficult to peg, ideologically. For those looking for a lawyer’s brief for their side of the political aisle, this is not your book. But it’s important to remember that the Bible is not captive to modern ideologies or political parties. It stands outside of them, critiquing them for what they get wrong and affirming what they get right. If we follow the Bible, then, our political principles and priorities won’t be easy to peg as merely partisan ideology. Personally, I found the book refreshing. In a few places, it caused me to reexamine whether my political convictions are as biblically rooted as I think they are. In a few places, I disagreed with it. That kind of critical self-examination is a good habit to develop, it seems to me.

Anderson and Carey close the book by making a case for civility in the public square. Given the taunting, name-calling, and isolated acts of violence that have marred this election cycle, the authors’ plea for civility is especially appropriate. I’ll close with this quotation from the book:

The practice of Christian civility brings the fruit of the Spirit into the public square: “love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control” (Gal. 5:22–23). We please God, display the love of Jesus, and bless our nation all at the same time.

Amen to that!

P.S. This review first appeared at

P.P.S. Check out my Influence Podcast with Leith Anderson about the book.

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Review of ‘A Spirit-Empowered Church’ by Alton Garrison

Spirit-Empowered_350Alton Garrison, A Spirit-Empowered Church: An Acts 2 Ministry Model (Springfield, MO: Influence Resources, 2015).

Pentecostals look to the Acts 2 church as the paradigmatic church—and with good reason! This was the church to whom Jesus Christ himself said, “you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses” (Acts 1:8). This was the church whose miraculous beginnings (2:4) were followed by immediate growth, both quantitatively (2:41) and qualitatively (2:42ff.).

This paradigmatic church is sometimes misunderstood, however. It was not a perfect church, for example, as the negative example of Ananias and Sapphira reminds us (5:1ff). It also was not a hyper-spiritual church, one so dependent on the immediate leading of the Holy Spirit that it neglected more pragmatic aspects of ministry. Just before the outpouring of the Spirit in Acts 2, for example, the church nominated two men to succeed Judas Iscariot (1:12ff.) On the Day of Pentecost itself, someone had to come up with a plan (and locations!) to baptize 3,000 converts (2:41). Later, the church had to resolve a problem in the distribution of the poor fund, which it did by creating the office of deacon (6:1ff).

The Acts 2 church, it turns out, was both powerful and pragmatic. Garrison writes:

The odd thing is that in some churches, we see resistance to calls for revitalization while others resist the idea of planning. Some don’t see the need for the work of the Holy Spirit or feel their churches have enough of the Spirit already, and others act like the Holy Spirit has no place in a planning meeting. The truth is that we need Him in every component of our lives and churches.

Alton Garrison makes the case for this kind of church in A Spirit-Empowered Church. Garrison is assistant general superintendent of the Assemblies of God (USA). In that capacity, he provides oversight to the AG’s Church Transformation Initiative, which partners with district denominational offices and local congregations to help strengthen the local church. His book is both steeped in classical Pentecostal theology and practice as well as attentive to what works.

Garrison divides the book into three units. Unit 1, “Our Challenge,” focuses on the issues that churches need to address to experience greater health. Unit II shows church leaders how to think about their congregation’s mission, vision, and values…and why. Unit III identifies the five core functions of a healthy church: connect, grow, serve, grow, worship. Garrison blends biblical insight, personal example, and practical principles in each chapter. The book thus rises out of a lifetime of reflection on the ministry of the local church.

What Garrison writes about the Acts 2 church resonates with me. In my own 25 years of ministry, I have been tempted to rely too much on one end of the powerful-pragmatic spectrum. I have also seen others go too far the other way. Reading a veteran minister make the case for balance reminded me not to be captive to false dichotomies in ministry. I would recommend this book especially to young ministers in their first pastorates. Heeding the advice Garrison gives will save you from a lot of grief. I’d also recommend it to pastors, board members, and other church leaders who feel that their church is stuck and need help getting spiritually and mission ally healthier.

P.S. This review first appeared at

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Review of ‘Catch the Wind of the Spirit’ by Carolyn Tennant

Catch_the_Wind_350Carolyn Tennant, Catch the Wind of the Spirit: How the 5 Ministry Gifts Can Transform Your Church (Springfield, MO: Vital Resources, 2016).

In Ephesians 4:11–12, the apostle Paul wrote: “So Christ himself gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the pastors and teachers, to equip his people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up…” These five ministries played an obvious and fundamental role in the Church, according to the apostle, yet they are the occasion of no small amount of controversy today. Do the apostolic and prophetic ministries continue to operate today? If so, do they constitute offices within the Church? Should we call specific ministers “Apostle So-and-so” or “Prophet Such-and-such”?

Many classical Pentecostals believe that too much emphasis has been placed on office and more emphasize should be placed on function. In other words, the question should not be whether such-and-such a person bears the office and title of apostle or prophet but whether apostolic and prophetic functions are taking place in the Church. This emphasis on function is the position of the Assemblies of God. It is also the emphasis of Carolyn Tennant in her new book from Vital Resources, Catch the Wind of the Spirit. “The vast majority of teaching on this [subject] has focused on church leadership,” she writes. “I’m firmly convinced, however, that God is focused upon the ministry currents that each person is supposed to oversee. He means for the whole church to get involved.”

What are the five currents Ephesians 4 identifies? Tennant outlines them this way:

  1. Seeing people come to Christ (The Powerful Wooing Current)
  2. Ensuring new believers learn to follow Him closely and mature into what He desires them to be (The Radical Forming Current)
  3. Caring for His disciples in the body of believers so they may stay health, and connected, and know they are loved (The Synchronized Choreography Current)
  4. Providing direction for the church: correcting and restoring, affirming and encouraging (The Housecleaning Directional Current)
  5. Pushing back the darkness and taking new territory for the kingdom of God (The Miraculous Sending Current)

Each chapter describing these currents is paired with a chapter describing, “what kind of people are needed to oversee the current and where they might be in our churches.” Tennant seems indifferent to whether these “overseers” are church offices filled by paid ministers, and she pays careful attention to “misconceptions” that frequently attach themselves to the ministries of apostles and prophets. Here are the “overseers” for each of the currents above, respectively:

  1. The Evangelist
  2. The Teacher
  3. The Pastor
  4. The Prophetic Servant
  5. The Apostolic Emissary

Tennant clearly longs to experience the renewal and revitalization of North American churches. She is thoroughly Pentecostal in both theology and practice. (If you doubt that the Holy Spirit speaks directly to believers today, make sure to read the story she tells on pages 160–162 about the Spirit sending her to talk to a man in the parking lot of a run-down strip mall. It’s like a contemporary version of Philip and the Ethiopian eunuch.) In addition to sharp biblical insight and poignant personal anecdotes, Tennant highlights the Spirit-filled missionary endeavors of St. Patrick and other Celtic missionaries in the early medieval era. That’s a surprising move, given how many Pentecostals, charismatics, and evangelicals view the state of the early medieval Church. On the other hand, when you see how downright “Pentecostal” those missionaries could be—including St. Patrick’s experience with speaking in tongues—you realize that the connection between a vibrant experience of the Spirit and power for mission to the world have always gone together, both biblically and in Church history.

I’ll wrap up my review by quoting Tennant’s concluding words:

When God is free to move, as He is in revival, the Triune God brings a fresh flow of each and every current. The Trinity has been working in every one of them all along from the beginning, and the Three are all desirous of pouring out even more upon us. Will we receive it?

That’s a very good question.

P.S. This review first appeared at

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Review of ‘Good Faith’ by David Kinnaman and Gabe Lyons

Good_Faith_Bad_Faith_350David Kinnaman and Gabe Lyons, Good Faith: Being a Christian When Society Thinks You’re Extreme and Irrelevant (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2016).

I recently testified before a state legislative committee in favor of two religious freedom bills. Twenty-five years ago, support for religious freedom was widespread. A nearly unanimous Congress passed the federal Religious Freedom Act, for example, and a Democratic president signed it into law. Today, any religious freedom bill, whether at the state or federal level, is sure to spark heated opposition because opponents argue that religious freedom is simply a mask for discrimination against the LGBT community. That shift of thinking is both tectonic and, to Christians like me, worrisome.

Something else concerns me too, though. After the first hearing, a woman from the LGBT community approached the huddle of lawyers I was talking to, politely interrupted us, and made the following statement: “I need to tell you gentlemen something,” she said. “If you had lived the life I have lived, you wouldn’t think the way you do.” Then she walked away. None of us knew how to respond, or whether she wanted us to respond, so we said nothing. Even deeper than my worry about tectonic shifts in legal norms is my worry that the Church is missing the opportunity to share Christ’s good news with people whose experience is so contrary—alien, even—to our own. I confess that I missed a chance that day.

Jesus Christ commissioned His followers to “make disciples of all nations” (Matthew 28:19). While we might prefer to carry out the Great Commission in a society that provides robust protections to our religious freedom, the fact of the matter is that we are under the Lord’s orders whether or not the law protects us or our society approves of us. And let’s be honest, a large chunk of American society is moving in a direction that is not favorable to Christian faith and practice.

David Kinnaman and Gabe Lyons’ first co-authored book was unChristian, which examined how unbelieving Millennials viewed Christianity. The portrait they painted was not flattering. According to their research, unbelieving Millennials viewed Christians as hypocritical, anti-science, too focused on conversion, anti-gay, sheltered, too political, and judgmental. Their negative view of Christians is more than a PR problem, of course. It is a missional problem. How do we “make disciples of all nations” when the nations view us as irrelevant at best or extreme at worst?

Good Faith outlines Kinnaman and Lyons’ answer to that question. Kinnaman is president of the Barna Group, “a leading research and communications company that works with churches, nonprofits, and businesses ranging from film studios to financial services.” Lyons is founder of Q, “a learning community that educates and mobilizes Christians to think well and advance good in society.” Based on their research and biblical reflection, they identify three ingredients that must characterize the Church’s mission in contemporary America:

How well we love + What we believe + How we live = Good Faith

Stated as one-word imperatives, these elements are love, believe, and live. Each imperative must be fulfilled for good faith to be present. In other words, we can’t reduce Christianity to what some have called orthopathy (right affections, love) or orthodoxy (right doctrine, believe) or orthopraxy (right behavior, live). Good faith consists of the three imperatives acting in tandem at all times. Stated so simply, the need for these imperatives is obvious. And yet, how difficult we find it to put them all into practice.

Take my encounter with the woman after the legislative hearing, for example. I know what I believe regarding both religious freedom specifically and LGBT issues more generally. I’d like to think that I translate those beliefs into moral behavior on a day-to-day basis. But, if I’m honest, I find it easier to explain and defend my beliefs than to love the person on the other side of those issues. Kinnaman and Lyons write something that I need to take to heart: “There is a world of difference between confidently asserting what we believe and being aggressive in faith-driven ‘beast mode.” I hope I never go into beast mode on any issue—through I constantly feel the temptation on issues about which I have strong opinions. Still, I wonder: Am I like the Ephesian church which had “biblical orthodoxy” nailed down tight but had “forsaken the love you had at first” (Revelation 2:6)? Am I cultivating the fruit of the Spirit, which is love (Galatians 5:22)? Other Christians may struggle with understanding and defending biblical orthodoxy or with putting their faith into action. Regardless of which of the three imperatives you do best (and which worst), the point is to keep them all together.

Kinnaman and Lyons apply the love-believe-live formula to a host of issues. In the final chapter, they sum up the point of the entire book by writing: “The Christian community is called to be a counterculture for the common good. We are countercultural when we…”

  • love others well
  • remain committed to orthodox beliefs
  • make space for those who disagree
  • stand out from the crowd
  • ask the right questions
  • live under God’s moral order
  • offer a vision of human intimacy beyond sex
  • practice hospitality
  • do the good, hard work of racial reconciliation
  • value human life in every form, at every stage
  • love our gay friends and trust God’s design for sex
  • build households of faith
  • are theologically grounded and culturally responsive
  • make disciples
  • practice the sacred art of seeing people
  • make disciples and faith communities that are Christlike.

Good Faith is a good book. For someone like me who is worried about the culture but more concerned about the Church bearing witness to Jesus in the midst of it, the book provides diagnostic criteria and a checklist for self-examination. On any issue, do I love the person on the other side of the issue? Do I know what biblical orthodoxy actually requires of me? Do I live my Christianity in an authentic and attractive way? If I cannot answer “yes” to each of these questions, I have work to do. And so, it seems to me, does the American church.

P.S. This review first appeared at

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