How to Fight Racism | Book Review

“Something is different this time.”

Jemar Tisby tweeted those words in the aftermath of the death of George Floyd, a black man who died while in police custody. The videotape of a white police officer kneeling on Floyd’s neck for nearly nine minutes resulted in widespread outrage, organized protests, and criminal indictments of the officers involved. While similar incidents had provoked such responses before, the reaction to Floyd’s death seemed different, as if American society had come to a turning point on racism.

Turns don’t make themselves, however. They have to be made. In Tisby’s words, “racial progress does not occur apart from the sustained efforts of people who dedicate themselves to fighting racism in all its forms.” How to Fight Racism is Tisby’s contribution to those sustained efforts. It outlines a model of practical action he calls “the ARC of Racial Justice,” with ARC as an acronym for awareness, relationships, and commitment.

How to Fight Racism is the companion to Tisby’s 2019 book, The Color of Compromise. That book outlined American Christianity’s tragic complicity in slavery, segregation and racism from the colonial period to the present day. (I interviewed Tisby about it here.) If that book described “complicit Christianity,” How to Fight Racism describes “courageous Christianity,” a faith that “dares to love through action and to risk everything for the sake of justice.”

The book’s ARC model begins with awareness. According to Tisby, the concept of race is “a socially constructed category that offers certain privileges and advantages to one group, which in the US context is white people, to the detriment of all those who are excluded from that group — that is, ‘nonwhite’ people, or people of color.”

So defined, race contradicts biblical theology, according to which all people are “the image of God,” and therefore “a racially and ethnically diverse church” represents God’s redemptive goal. Because race is socially constructed, we need to be aware of how it has shaped and misshaped our racial identity as individuals, as well as our history as a community.

After awareness come relationships. The goal here is racial reconciliation. This “does not mean returning to a bygone historical era of harmony but rather revising our relationships to more closely match God’s foundational pattern for human interaction,” Tisby writes. As Christians, we must pursue this reconciliation both personally and community-wide.

Personally, we need to make friends across dividing lines of race and ethnicity. According to Tisby, this is important because it is “difficult to pursue effective structural remedies to racism if you have little understanding of the personal experiences of marginalized people. Relationships make reconciliation real and motivate us to act.” Churches are a good place to do this, especially since biblical theology demonstrates that God’s redemptive goal is a racially and ethnically diverse church.

But reconciliation efforts need to move outside the church walls too. Corporately, we need to take action to build communities characterized by “diversity, equity, and inclusion.” Tisby defines those terms this way: “If diversity focuses on who is present, equity says who has access to a community’s resources and on what terms, and inclusion speaks to the sense of welcome and belonging extended to each person or group.”

Finally, there is commitment. Here, the key terms are racial justice and systemic racism. The former names the end we should seek, what Martin Luther King Jr. called “the beloved community,” while the latter names the obstacle to that goal.

“It is one matter to acknowledge that all people are made equal and have inherent dignity in their very being,” Tisby writes. “It is another matter to identify the ways the image of God is defaced in groups of people through systems and policies and to work against those injustices.”

As a middle-aged minister, I have witnessed several racial reconciliation movements sweep through the church. They start well, as people experience the good feeling of beginning friendships across racial and ethnic dividing lines. But so far, those movements have petered out because once participants got past the good feelings, they found themselves disagreeing strongly, often sharply, about the nature, causes, and fixes for the persistent disparities between white and black Americans.

I worry that our post-George Floyd moment will suffer the same fate. Tisby takes pain to root his advice in sound biblical theology, but I know that many white readers especially will disagree with his advice. At certain points in the book, I did. Nevertheless, I encourage you to read How to Fight Racism in tandem with The Color of Compromise. Even better, read them with others in your church.

The beloved community — the place of racial reconciliation and justice — only comes about if we commit ourselves to God’s will and to one another and lean into the hard conversations these books raise. If we do these things, perhaps something will be different this time indeed.

Book Reviewed
Jemar Tisby, How to Fight Racism: Courageous Christianity and the Journey toward Racial Justice (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2021).

P.S. If you liked my review, please click “Helpful” on my Amazon review page.

P.P.S. This review first appeared at and is cross-posted here with permission.

P.P.P.S. I interviewed Jemar Tisby about his previous book, The Color of Compromise. Take a listen to the podcast:

Weep with Me | Book Review

On June 4, North Central University hosted the funeral for George Floyd. NCU is an Assemblies of God school in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In the days that followed the funeral, my Facebook timeline was filled with Christian folk weighing in on whether this was a good idea. The vast majority thought it was, but a vocal few — all but one of them white — were angry about aspects of the school’s action.

While perusing the back-and-forth on Facebook, I received an out-of-the-blue call from a minister friend in the Church of God in Christ. COGIC is a historically black church and the nation’s largest Pentecostal denomination. My friend expressed incredible joy at NCU’s action, and he shared with me that other COGIC leaders also were happy at this unexpected action on NCU’s part.

The difference between the angry comments I read on Facebook and the joy in my friend’s phone call — anger and joy about the same event! — was (and is) jarring. Scripture enjoins believers, “Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn” (Romans 12:15). And yet, on June 4, the emotions of Christians I personally observed were out of sync.

In Weep with Me, Mark Vroegop shows “how lament opens a door for racial reconciliation.” A lament is “a prayer in pain that leads to trust.” It is a common form of prayer in the Bible, especially in the Psalms and Lamentations. It usually contains four elements: 1) turning to God, 2) complaining about one’s situation, 3) asking for relief, and 4) trusting in God for deliverance. Vroegop’s previous book, Dark Clouds, Deep Mercy, discusses these four elements in greater detail.

Lament is largely absent from white Christian spirituality in America. It is the native tongue of black Christian spirituality, however, the essence of African American spirituals. “These songs of sorrow expressed the emotional trauma of slavery and segregation,” Vroegop writes. “They protested exile created by the sins of partiality and abuse.” Ironically, when white American Christians look for mournful songs to use in Good Friday services, for example, they often turn to spirituals such as “Were You There When They Crucified My Lord?”

So, how does lament open a door for racial reconciliation? To articulate the answer, Vroegop sketches out a path to reconciliation that consists of five movements.

First, love. “The church should be involved in racial reconciliation because of what we believe,” namely, that “Christ is all, and in all” (Colossians 3:11, ESV).

Second, listen. “Too often the tone of the conversation [about racial reconciliation] is marked by closed minds, hasty words, and angry attitudes.” Progress requires “a posture of listening.”

Third, lament. More on this in a moment, but for now, just keep in mind that lament “supplies a biblical voice that allows us to talk to God and one another about the pain we feel and see.”

Fourth, learn. “Our cultural backgrounds, understandings of history, and experiences create assumptions and blind spots. If we take the posture of learning from one another, we create a safe environment for asking questions and working through disagreements.”

Fifth, leverage. “The key is to understand that racial reconciliation requires action,” Vroegop concludes. “Love, listening, lamenting, and learning are designed to lead us here.”

So, again, how does lament open a door for racial reconciliation? It does so differently depending on whether a Christian belongs to his or her nation’s majority or one of its many minorities. In Part 2, Vroegop addresses America’s white majority; in Part 3, its black minority. (Though Vroegop draws on the history of America’s white-black divide, what he says could apply to white relations with other racial and ethnic minorities too.)

For majority Christians, lament engenders empathy, defined as “the ability or willingness to understand and care.” Empathy is the emotion behind Romans 12:15, which I quoted earlier, the ability to rejoice with or mourn with another. The incident I opened this review with is thus a failure of empathy. By contrast, “Weeping with those who weep emulates the heart of Jesus. It builds a bridge of grace over the chasm of division and injustice. It provides comfort to those who are hurting.”

Lament also offers majority Christians the language with which to speak up. “When it comes to racial injustice, the historical silence of most Christians has been deafening.” Lament both “acknowledges the brokenness of the world” and “refuses to remain silent.” A lament, merely by acknowledging that something is grievously wrong, breaks “the stronghold of the status quo.”

Finally, lament offers majority Christians the language of repentance and remorse. “Repentance is the change of mind, heart, and will that involves confession of specific sin and a change in our affections,” Vroegop writes. “Remorse is the heartfelt response when the weight of sin is understood.” We repent of our own sins. We express remorse for the sins of history that have shaped our present.

For minority Christians, lament offers the language of protest, triumph and faith. “Lament is an act of protest as the lamenter is allowed to express indignation and even outrage about the experience of suffering,” writes Soong-Chan Rah. In the Bible, such complaints were often found on the lips of exiles. “By the waters of Babylon, there we sat down and wept” (Psalm 137:1, ESV). The Bible licenses the negative emotions associated with unjust suffering.

And yet, lament also gives minority Christians a language of triumph, as they acknowledge God’s power to redeem them out of their pain. Using Psalm 94, Vroegop draws three lessons about the power of lament. First, lament “validates the concern with injustice.” Second, it “shows us an appeal made not only because of personal wrongs but also because the divinely given system of justice was not working. And third, it “helps us see what to do with our frustrations and deep concern,” namely, turning to God and foreswearing vengeance.

Finally, lament gives minority Christians a language of hope about four things in particular: “God will help you,” “hardship can be transformative,” “people can change,” and “God will make it right.” Black Christians’ experience of suffering has often give them reservoirs of hope unavailable to those who live in comparative ease.

Weep with Me doesn’t claim to be the be-all, end-all of racial reconciliation. Much more has to be done than simply lamenting the current state of race relations in America, even among American Christians. And yet, the more I ponder the disparate responses to George Floyd’s funeral I mentioned at the top of this review, the more I wonder whether lament is a crucial missing step in contemporary reconciliation efforts.

Perhaps black and white Christians in America cannot move in step until our hearts are in sync, mourning together … and rejoicing too.

Book Reviewed
Mark Vroegop, Weep with Me: How Lament Opens a Door for Racial Reconciliation (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2020).

P.S. If you liked my review, please click “Helpful” on my Amazon review page.

P.P.S. This review is cross-posted from with permission.

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