An Outline of the Christian Faith, Part 1: Revelation (Revelation 1:1–3)


The message of John’s Apocalypse is complex and simple: Complex because it uses figurative language, which is capable of multiple interpretations. Simple because one person dominates throughout. The key to understanding Revelation is Jesus Christ. If we see him clearly, we will interpret it correctly.

In chapter 1, as a prologue to the whole book, John presents us with an outline of the Christian faith.

Revelation (Verses 1–3)

Over the years, I have accumulated many volumes of systematic theology (and even read some of them). Usually, they begin with a section on the sources of Christian faith: the Bible, tradition, reason, and experience. The Bible is the first, most important, and ultimately decisive source of Christian faith because it is God’s word (2 Tim. 3:16–17; 2 Pet. 1:20–21). But tradition, reason, and experience also are important, albeit secondary, sources of belief. They are guides to how Christians through the ages have interpreted God’s word and applied it to their lives.

Systematic theologians address the sources of Christian faith first for a very simple reason: The truthfulness of a belief depends, in part, on the reliability of its sources. When forming a theory, for example, scientists pay close attention to the accuracy of their experimental evidence. Prosecutors prize eyewitness testimony as they make their case against the accused. Biographers root through library stacks to find the original letters of the person whose life they are writing.

John is a theologian—a person who speaks a word (logos) about God (theos). In some Greek manuscripts, the title of his book is “The Revelation of St. John the Divine”—an older English word for theologian. (The actual Greek phrase is tou theologou.) Not surprisingly, then, he begins his book of prophetic theology with a comment on his sources: “The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John….”

“The revelation of Jesus Christ” is ambiguous. Grammatically, it can mean the revelation by Jesus Christ or the revelation about Jesus Christ, the revealer or the one revealed. In the context of verses 1–2, it probably means the former, but we should not overlook the latter. After all, elsewhere in the New Testament, Jesus Christ is both. Revealer: The unique Word that makes God known (John 1:1, 14) and the Son of God whose speech is the Father’s own (Heb. 1:1–2). Revealed One: “And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, Jesus interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself” (Luke 24:27). In John’s Apocalypse, he is both too.

John points out that God speaks to his servants through intermediaries: Jesus Christ, the angel, and John himself. Just as Jesus Christ is the Word of God in human flesh, so the Bible is the word of God in human words. That is why a blessing comes to all who read and heed the Scriptures generally (Ps. 1) and John’s Apocalypse particularly (verse 3). When they read John’s book, they see what the angel showed, go where Jesus Christ sent, and comprehend what God revealed.

If you are a Christian, you are a theologian—a person who speaks words about God. So, pay attention to your sources, the Bible especially! The truthfulness of your beliefs and the blessedness of your life depend upon it.

Review of ‘ESV Reader’s Bible’



ESV Reader’s Bible
(Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2014). TruTone Leather| Hardcover | Kindle

This year, my church is promoting a Bible reading and prayer initiative called “20•15 in 2015.” Every day, we read the Bible for 20 minutes then engage in prayer and solitude for 15 minutes. (These are minimums.) The congregation is using the One Year Bible reading plan on Bible.com, which includes a daily reading from the Old Testament, New Testament, Psalms, and Proverbs. Rather than using this plan, I decided to read the Bible straight through instead.

As a Christian minister, I have read the Bible cover to cover several times. It is the tool of my trade, so to speak, and I am familiar with its contents. So, as I prepared to read it again, I determined to find a translation and format that was not familiar to me. The old proverb says that familiarity breeds contempt. In reality, familiarity breeds complacency. We become so accustomed to seeing things a certain way that we fail to notice how much we’ve overlooked or misinterpreted.

The choice of a different translation was easy enough. My go-to translation is the New International Version. It is a functionally equivalent and gender inclusive translation. In its place, I decided to use the English Standard Version, which is a formally equivalent translation.

The choice of a different format was more difficult. The vast majority of Bibles are printed in a two-column format. Most of them include chapter and verse numbers, as well as subtitles, cross-references, and footnotes. Study Bibles include even more information, such as extensive comments, maps, and diagrams. For example, compare how Acts 2 appears in my ESV Bible, Classic Thinline Edition and my ESV Study Bible.

Acts in the ESV Thinline

Acts in the ESV Thinline

Acts 2 in the ESV Study Bible

Acts 2 in the ESV Study Bible

At some point in 2014, I had heard about Adam Lewis Greene’s Bibliotheca project, which was printing the Bible in a single-column format without chapter and verse numbers, subtitles, cross-references, or footnotes. In other words, it was printing a Bible that looked like a normal book. Unfortunately, Greene was using a modified version of the American Standard Version, whose English translations, while literal, can be archaic. As much as I admired what Greene was trying to do, I wasn’t interested in reading the ASV.

Imagine my delight, then, when I came across the ESV Reader’s Bible. It presents that translation in a single-column format, 9-point font, which is very readable. It has no verse numbers, subtitles, cross-references, or footnotes. (The textual notes prior to John 7:53–8:11 and Mark 16:9–20, which state that the earliest New Testament manuscripts do not contain these passages, are exceptions.) Chapter numbers are printed unobtrusively in the margin in a different color, except for the Psalms, where the psalm number appears directly above each psalm. The page header includes the title, chapter, and verses appearing on the page below it, but these also are unobtrusive. Consider how the ESV Reader’s Bible presents Acts 2.

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With the ESV Reader’s Bible in hand, I began my 20-minutes-a-day Bible reading plan. What I have discovered surprised me. How the Bible is presented on the page radically changes the way a reader experiences its message. At least, it radically changed my experience. It did so in two ways.

First, this format increased my focus on what the Bible was saying. While I will continue to use a two-column study Bible in my research for sermons, devotionals, and articles, I will never again use one for personal devotions. Its presentation of God’s Word is simply too cluttered. When I used that format for devotional purposes, I found my eyes skipping to another column, scanning the page for footnotes, and looking ahead to when the section or chapter ended. With the ESV Reader’s Bible format, I found myself reading without distraction. This allowed me to notice nuances in the text that, for whatever reason, had escaped my attention previously.

Second, this format increased my enjoyment of reading the Bible. In my previous attempts to read the Bible through entirely, I often found myself wondering how long it was going to take me to finish the daily reading. Sometimes, reading the Bible felt like a chore that had to be endured. It dragged on and on until I reached the end of that day’s prescribed reading. (And this wasn’t just in books like Leviticus and Numbers!) This year, I decided simply to read for 20 minutes without a set chapter to start or finish with. That decision, combined with the new format, has made reading a delight again. Why is it that we can read novels for hours at a time but find minutes spent in the Bible so difficult? If my experience is any guide, it’s partially because of the format of the Bible we’re reading. When the Bible is printed as a normal book, it’s easier to read as a normal book—and easier to enjoy.

Proverbs 25:11 says, “A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver.” When it is printed, the Word of God is the golden apple that deserves a silver setting. Bible publishers would do well to keep this in mind as they print their translations. Yes, translation philosophy matters most. And yes, the monetary cost of the book must be factored in, lest reader avoid buying a Bible because of its prohibitive cost. But how the Bible looks—its aesthetic appeal—matters too. If the Bible is beautifully presented, the beauty of its message can be better understood and applied.

P.S. If you found this review helpful, please vote “Yes” on my Amazon.com review page.

The Whole Duty of Man (Ecclesiastes 12:9–14)


Today, we conclude our study of Ecclesiastes with, fittingly, a meditation on “the whole duty of man.” Ecclesiastes 12:9–14 is a summary of all that the Preacher has tried to teach us in the previous eleven-and-a-half chapters. His lessons can be summed up simply enough: “Fear God and keep his commandments.”

By what authority does the Preacher sum up our whole duty in this way? It is not by means of prophetic authority, for the Preacher does not claim to be a prophet. It is not by means of priestly interpretation of the Law, for the Preacher is not a priest. Although the Preacher is a king (1:1), he does not use his royal power to promulgate his message. No, the authority of the Preacher’s message is the authority of common sense. He is “wise,” “weighing and studying and arranging many proverbs with great care.” His authority is the authority of reason. Many people mistakenly try to oppose faith to facts, revelation to reason. But the Bible teaches us that both can be avenues to truth, if our hearts are pure. Both reason and revelation are “given by one Shepherd,” that is, God.

Wisdom such as the Preacher displays is an inherently good thing. It is a “goad,” encouraging us through “words of delight” to live well and truly before God. It is like “nails firmly fixed,” providing an indispensable, unchanging support for the good life. Wisdom both initiates change, in other words, and conserves blessings.

Wisdom also is simple and eternal. The Preacher contrasts wisdom and “making many books.” Making many books refers to man’s ongoing effort to understand himself and the world he lives in. Such learning is necessary. Often, as with the realm of the hard sciences, we make many new and exciting discoveries. But while knowledge of our DNA changes (thus requiring new books), knowledge of our moral nature does not. You would be a fool if you went to a doctor who studied only seventeenth-century medical textbooks. You would be an even greater fool if you ignored a moral writer like the Preacher, though he has been dead for millennia. Scientific knowledge changes; moral wisdom does not.

So, “Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.” The notion of fearing God frightens us. We like to think of God as the God of love, not fear, and in a certain sense, he is. But God is so great and majestic, so holy and awe-inspiring, that we small creatures would do well to remember our place in the universe and show due respect for him and for his Word. Why? “God will bring every deed into judgment, with every secret thing, whether good or evil.” A wise person always keeps this truth in mind.

The book of Ecclesiastes begins with a statement about the world that is, “vanity of vanities” (1:2), and ends with a statement about the world to come, the “judgment.” We live between these worlds and must make choices in the former to prepare us for the latter, so choose well. If you follow the Preacher’s common-sense advice, you will.

Are You Prepared for Death—and Life? (Ecclesiastes 12:1–8)


In Ecclesiastes 12:1–8, the Preacher calls you to worship God now, while you can, before advancing age and declining ability rob you of the power to do so.

He does this by painting a vivid portrait of the negative aspects of aging. (We should always remember, of course, that aging has many pluses: the joy of a life well lived; the wisdom of experience; the pleasures of a lifelong companion, children, and grandchildren, to name just a few. But the Preacher’s focus does not fall on the positives, in this passage, only the negatives.) Consider the images:

  • Aging is a storm that blots out the sun (verse 2).
  • Aging is accompanied by weakened arms (“keepers”), legs (“strong men”), loss of teeth (“grinders”), and blinded eyes (“windows”), according to verse 3.
  • Verses 4 and 5 associate aging with increased isolation (shut doors), deafness (low sound and low song), and restless wakefulness (rising at bird chatter), fear, white hair (almond blossoms), stiff walking (the dragging grasshopper), and decreased sexual appetite (“desire fails”).

At one level, the Preacher’s call is depressing. Who wants to consider his own mortality, after all, or make present choices in light of future death? No one, as far as I can tell; probably not you—certainly not I.

But the Preacher’s call is a rational one. We live in the day and age of strategic planning, long-term initiatives, and step-by-step processes for reaching your life’s goals. Surely you cannot plan your life without considering its end. And surely, if you are going to die, it would be wise for you to consider how to enter eternity. Too often, we make the mistake of thinking that our seventy-odd years on earth are all that matters. The Preacher wisely reminds us of the life to come: “man is going to his eternal home” (verse 5).

At the end of the day, you see, all things in heaven and earth go “Poof!” There will come a day when “the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it” (verse 7).This present life is a vanity of vanities. Only God, and those who choose to love him in this life, endure in happiness forever.

So, the obvious question is this: Are you prepared, not only for life, but also for death and the life to come?

Young at Heart (Ecclesiastes 11:7–10)


Several years ago, I taught the Open Bible Class, a Sunday school class for senior citizens. Now, I must admit that I had a few preconceptions about seniors when I first began teaching them. I thought they were, like, you know, “old.” And they were. The class has its fair share of eighty- and ninety-year-olds. What I did not expect, however, was the lesson I learned from close contact with those wonderful people: Just because you are old does not mean you have to act like it. A few of those eighty- and ninety-year-olds led a more active life than I did; they knew how to really enjoy the day.

Thinking about my friends in Open Bible, and reflecting on Ecclesiastes 11:7–10, I cannot help but think that God wants us to be young at heart, even if our bodies are old.

The Preacher begins with a simple statement: “Light is sweet, and it is pleasant for the eyes to see the sun.” Since only the living can see light and enjoy it, what the Preacher is really saying is that life itself is sweet and pleasant. All things being equal, life is preferable to death. The gospel promises us eternal life rather than soul sleep or spiritual annihilation precisely because in the biblical worldview, God is a living God who offers his creatures a good life, if they will receive it from him with faith.

Life being good, the Preacher goes on to point out that we ought to rejoice in it, especially as we age: “So if a person lives many years, let him rejoice in them all.” But that rejoicing has a tinge of sadness with it because of the tainting effects of sin: “the days of darkness will be many. All that comes is vanity.” As Christians, we cannot rejoice fully in this life precisely because it is marred by sin. But the gospel holds out the promise of creation’s restoration, as well as our own.

Not surprisingly—given his basic optimism about life—the Preacher counsels young people especially to live with gusto: “Rejoice…in your youth, and let your heart cheer you in the days of your youth.” It almost seems as if the Preacher counsels too much gusto, to tell you the truth: “Walk in the ways of your heart and the sight of your eyes,” in other words, “Do whatever makes you happy.” But, he quickly reminds the young to be guided by wisdom in their hedonism, for “God will bring you into judgment.”

The final verse sums up the Preacher’s advice: “Remove vexation from your heart and put away pain from your body, for youth and the dawn of life are vanity.” The young can be carefree and pain free because, well, they are young. For the rest of us, living without pain and anxiety is a conscious, intentional choice. Chronologically, our youth comes and goes. It is a thing that goes “Poof!” Spiritually, however, we can choose to be young at heart and always to enjoy the life God gives us.

The Abundance Mentality (Ecclesiastes 11:1–6)


God wants you to develop an abundance mentality.

In the early nineteenth century, the Rev. Thomas Malthus argued that “population tends to increase faster than the supply of food available for its needs.” Consequently, human beings face a perpetual shortfall of necessities and must act with a scarcity mentality, focusing on how to increase their slice of a limited pie. Malthus’s argument influenced Charles Darwin and his followers, the latter of whom especially saw life as a struggle between species over limited resources in which only the fittest survived.

The abundance mentality is the exact opposite of this scarcity mentality. It begins with the assumption that there is an abundance of earthly goods to be enjoyed by all people, rather than a scarcity to be snatched up by a fortunate few. Rather than selfishly hoarding goods, a person with an abundance mentality selflessly shares them with others who are in need. And a person with an abundance mentality is generous precisely because he knows that one day he may have need too.

In Ecclesiastes 11:1–6, the Preacher extols the many virtues of the abundance mentality using this arresting image. “Cast your bread upon the waters,” he exhorts us, “for you will find it after many days.” Be promiscuously generous, in other words, for by doing so, you will be treated generously in turn.

Now, such a motivation to generosity may seem selfish, as if your altruism is really egoism, as if by helping others you help yourself. Well, yes, that is the case. And so what! God wants us to be generous to others with the blessings he has given us. If we reap generosity in return, I do not think he minds too much. The main thing is that we are channeling his blessings to others through our gifts. Or rather, through his gifts.

By acting generously toward others, you see, we create a community of sharing and goodwill that will stand us in good stead during difficult days. Notice that the Preacher emphasizes our ignorance and the uncertainty of the future: “you know not what disaster may happen on earth,” “you do not know the work of God who makes everything,” and “you do not know which will propser, this or that, or whether both alike will be good.” We neither know nor control the future, but we can still act in the present to create a beloved community in which generosity and kindness to the less fortunate prevail.

So, develop an abundance mentality, and give generously. Such gifts have the habit of returning to their sender.

Government, Good and Bad (Ecclesiastes 10:16–20)


We recently held a national election, which gets me thinking about politics.

Does the Bible have anything useful to say about government or citizenship? Absolutely! But it usually speaks in general principles rather than offering detailed policy guidelines. Take, for example, what we read in Ecclesiastes 10:16–20.

The Preacher begins by noting how unpleasant it is for citizens to live under a bad regime. More precisely, he points out how cursed it is for “the land” to live under the unwise (child kings) and self-indulgent (feasting princes). Obviously, the land includes all the people who live on it, and so the land refers to citizens. (We call our own country “the land of the free and the home of the brave,” for example.) And yet, I cannot help but reflect on the fact that in the century just past, bad government has been bad for the environment too. The countries of the former Soviet Union are still dealing with the sludge left by that totalitarian regime. And the worst famines of the last century (1930s Ukraine, 1950s China, 1980s Ethiopia) were government-engineered, to a certain degree. Under bad government, the land and its people both suffer.

By strong contrast, good government promotes the commonwealth. What are characteristics of good government? Two things: The best people govern, and they do the right thing at the right time and for the right reason. America, of course, is a democratic republic, so the Preacher’s praise of aristocracy (“the son of nobility”) does not apply to us straight across the board. But the basic principle—that the society’s leaders should be the best trained—still makes sense.

The Preacher then turns his attention to two side topics: the danger of laziness and the value of material possessions. A house falls apart if it is not constantly cleaned, maintained, repaired, and painted. So, quite frankly, does a country, if its leaders and citizens neglect the spiritual, moral, and physical infrastructure of the nation. But we should never forget, as we work hard, that life is more than maintenance. God did not merely put us on earth to work, but also to enjoy. “A feast is made for laughter, wine makes life merry, and money is the answer for everything.”

Finally, the Preacher returns to the topic of government. In a highly authoritarian society, which is what monarchies tend to be, it is important not to think ill of the ruler. In a totalitarian society, doing so can get you imprisoned or killed. So, writing in the context of a monarchical society, the Preacher warns citizens to watch their mouths, lest their words occasion royal wrath. In America, of course, we have a First Amendment right to say what we want—however negative or positive—about those who govern us. Our government, thankfully, is “of the people, by the people, and for the people”—in Lincoln’s lapidary phrase. Still, although it is legitimate to criticize those who govern us, we ought to do so in a respectful way, if not of the officeholder, then at least of the office. Whether our government is monarchical or democratic, we citizens should mind our manners.

In sum, good governments govern wisely, and good citizens act respectfully. Those are two general and common-sense principles for both governors and the governed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version, copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.